## blast furnace gunning process

Why is carbon used for the blast furnace process? Lining thickness be obtained from registration re-sult and is illustrated in Sec. At high temperatures, carbon reacts predominantly with carbon dioxide to form carbon monoxide (as an important reducing agent). The trough design is based on fluid flow characteristics along with thermo-chemical reactions. \label{direkt} Blast furnace stack The refractory material is subjected to attack from CO atmosphere, alkalines, and mechanical wear. Other elements such as titanium, copper, etc. Crude steel production begins with the reduction process, where the iron ore reacts with carbon sources inside the blast furnace. 7. Iron Making in Mini Blast Furnace (MBF) The Blast Furnace ironmaking process had, until recently, been the unchallenged method of making hot metal on a large scale. Stopping the blast furnace and lowering the burden Opening of both doors (for the introduction of the robot) and probe holes located in the top (for fixing of the robot) Gunning of the insulating plug Assembly of the Giro Gun robot The refractory lining is cooled to further enhance the protection against the dispatch … Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The situation can be illustrated by the evaporation of water in a closed room filled with air. 4. Figure: Coke. In contrast, graphite is a thermodynamically stable compound that has survived even with long annealing times. The direct reduction can again be divided into intermediate steps in which the iron content in the ores increases in each case: \begin{align} FeO &~+~ C &&\rightarrow~ Fe &&+ ~CO ~~~~~~ \text{(wüstite} \rightarrow \text{iron)} \\[5px] Fundamental equation of planetary gears (Willis equation). The reduced admixtures in the blast furnace then react with the added flux in the charge and are bound in the resulting slag. The carbon dioxide gas ($$CO_2$$) reacts with the carbon contained in the coke ($$C$$) due to the very high temperatures and forms the carbon monoxide gas ($$CO$$) as the reducing agent: \begin{align} 2. The carbon ($$C$$) is oxidized to carbon monoxide ($$CO$$) by the absorption of oxygen ($$O$$). Carbon not only provides the necessary heat to melt the iron ore but also serves in a special way as a reducing agent to reduce the iron oxides to iron! This zone of the blast furnace is therefore called the preheating zone. If you continue to use this website, we will assume your consent and we will only use personalized ads that may be of interest to you. 1. 6. 8. are also contained in small quantities in the pig iron. & C + O_2  \rightarrow CO_2 ~~~ \text{(exotherm)} \\[5px] In order to keep the heat input as low as possible for energetic reasons, as little gangue as possible should be contained in the ores. With a daily production of 10,000 tons, this results in a coke input of 3,500 tons per day! Deaerator working principle, Types and Process Control, Types of Check Valves (Non Return Valve) NRV, Control Valve working, Components & Types, Distributed Control Systems (DCS) Information. In this region, the so-called indirect reduction of iron ores to iron by carbon monoxide takes place. As long as your consent is not given, no ads will be displayed. However, the heat released is sufficient to supply heat for the first two endothermic reactions. refra.com Für den Bereich der Hochofenschachtzustellung wurden alkali- und CO-resistente Produkte in allen Installationstechnologien (Gießen, Trockenspritzen, Jetcasting) entwickelt und erprobt. The use of carbon as a reducing agent is not only due to its high availability but as a gaseous substance carbon monoxide has the advantage that it can penetrate the porous ores well and react with the iron oxides. Pellets are produced from this lower iron content ore. An excessive drop in temperature must be avoided, however, as the reaction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide only takes place at sufficiently high temperatures. What is the difference between metastable and stable solidification? However, this dynamic equilibrium can be shifted in favour of or at the expense of the liquid water, depending on the temperature. An unfavourable accumulation of ores at the contact points can also make gas flow difficult and thus leave non-reduced iron ore behind. The blast furnace process is characterised by the variety and complexity of the phenomena of gas dynamics, charge transfer, heat transfer, recovery, softening, and other phenomena. These are the goals of BEKA! 3. Modern blast furnaces require around 350 kg of coke to melt one tonne of pig iron. Due to the reduction of the solidificatoin point by diffused carbon into the reduced iron, it begins to melt in the hotter zones of the blast furnace. The iron ore is dressed or crushed into 0.5-1 in. Process Control. The individual chemical processes in the blast furnace are described in more detail in the following sections. Amongst all the ironmaking processes, the Blast Furnace technology, which has been around the longest, still holds the dominant position. Blast Furnace Process. Due to the graphite in the stable solidified microstructure, the fracture surface of the pig iron appears matt-grey. New linings and manual repairs: dense shotcrete products (REFRAJETCRETE ® LC), self-flowing backfilling compounds (REFRASELFCAST ®) Hot repairs with a gunning robot: gunning (REFRAJET ®), cement-free shotcreting (REFRAJETCRETE ® Nanobond) Start-up protection (manual … 2018 Blast Furnace Inner Lining Maintenance Use Gunning Material , Find Complete Details about 2018 Blast Furnace Inner Lining Maintenance Use Gunning Material,Blast Furnace Gunning Material from Supplier or Manufacturer-Zhengzhou Sijihuo Refractory Co., Ltd. Effective Utilization of Energy. The corresponding chemical reactions are as follows: \begin{align} Blast Furnace and Process Description 3D Model The preheated air (1000–1300 °C) is blown through it. 1200 °C (see iron-carbon phase diagram). The blast furnace uses coke, iron ore and limestone to produce pig iron. heat is released – as is usual in a combustion process. It is usually cast in small ingots and offered to foundries for melting down with other materials (charging). The blast furnace (BF) ironmaking process is currently the dominant process for providing steelmaking raw materials worldwide. While the liquid water can evaporate briefly at a local point due to statistical fluctuations (“reaction”), water is again condensed locally from the supersaturated air at another point (“reverse reaction”). In Duisburg thyssenkrupp is testing the “sequence impulse process with induced shockwaves”, a new blast furnace technology designed to enhance process efficiency. Iron ores with lower iron content such as taconite are first processed to concentrate the iron level and drive off volatile impurities. With a relatively low silicon content, on the other hand, cementite precipitation is preferred when the pig iron solidifies. First, the weakly ferrous hematite ($$Fe_2O_3$$) is reduced by the carbon monoxide ($$CO$$) to more ferrous magnetite ($$Fe_3O_4$$). The equilibrium then shifts in the direction of the condensation process (this effect can also be seen very clearly on cooled beverage cans, where the water contained in the air condenses and water pearls form). The consistency of the iron is therefore still solid. The Blast Furnace is a heat based machine using solely for the creation of Steel. The heat required for this is provided by the (exothermic) combustion of the coke. This is the reason why pig iron has a relatively high carbon content. Iron making blast furnace consists of several zones a crucible shaped hearth at the bottom of the furnace, an intermediate zone … & CO_2 + C  \rightleftharpoons 2~CO ~~~ \text{(endotherm)} \\[5px] Combustion process. Most possible service life of the blast furnace shaft linings as well as runner systems, short repairing times and full-service solutions. However, the demand for grey pig iron accounts for only a small part. This website uses cookies. Iron is made by reacting iron ore (iron oxide and impurities), coke (a reductant) and limestone (CaCO 3) in a blast furnace. 3 Fe &~+~ C &&\rightarrow~ Fe_3C  \\[5px] The carbon monoxide gas ($$CO$$) is oxidized to carbon dioxide ($$CO_2$$) by absorbing the oxygen contained in the iron oxide ($$O$$). Then the magnetite is reduced to so-called wüstite ($$FeO$$) before it is finally reduced to iron ($$Fe$$): \begin{align} This module introduces the learner to the operation of the blast furnace for the transformation of iron ore to molten iron. Nevertheless, the temperature in this indirect reduction zone of 400 °C to a maximum of 800 °C is too low to melt the reduced iron! This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: The iron in the processed ores must be dissolved out by chemical processes. With stable solidification, carbon precipitates in pure form as graphite (grey pig iron)! To generate the necessary heat and the reducing carbon monoxide gas ($$CO$$), the coke is burnt in the lower part of the blast furnace with the supply of the hot-blast. The reaction of carbon dioxide and carbon to carbon monoxide and its reverse reaction is temperature-dependent and is described by the so-called Boudouard reaction. blast furnaces no.1 & 2, thyssenKrupp csa siderúrgica do atlântico, brazil. However, the BF process relies heavily on metallurgical coke and involves cokemaking and sintering operations, which often attract serious environmental concerns. If the iron ores, which have not yet been reduced, move further down in the blast furnace, then the carbon can also directly reduce the iron oxides contained in the ore due to the high temperatures. Iron ore that contains a lower iron content must be processed or beneficiated to increase its iron content. Therefore the solidified pig iron is also called grey pig iron. Even though equipment is improved and higher production rates can be achieved, the processes inside the blast furnace remain the same. The direct reduction takes place in the temperature zone between approx. What is “grey pig iron” and “white pig iron”? 1600 °C. Blast furnace gunning process. It has a high carbon content of about 4.5 %. The Blast Furnace is a members-only minigame situated in Keldagrim for smelting bars.The furnace here only requires half as much coal when smelting usually, so it can be useful when smelting the ores that require more coal.. In the blast furnace there are more monolithic refractory products in continuous operation than at any other stage in the steel production process - excluding new linings and interim repairs. Since at high temperatures and long annealing times the formed cementite would decompose back into its constituents (iron and carbon), this form of solidification is also called metastable solidification in the thermodynamic sense. The refractory wall lining typically measures two feet or more in thickness and contains more than 2,500 tons of refractories. One of the aims is to help reduce CO2 emissions – both at the company’s own plant and around the world by marketing the technology globally. When the liquid pig iron solidifies, the silicon content in particular determines whether the dissolved carbon precipitates in its pure form as graphite ($$C$$) in the microstructure or as iron carbide ($$Fe_3C$$, cementite). For this reason, the iron ores are also processed as porous as possible in the form of sinter and pellets. The enrichment of solid iron with carbon in a temperature range between 900 °C and 1200 °C is also referred to as carburisation. Use of Blast Furnace Products. These processes are described in more detail in the following articles. 5. From a maximum of 2000 °C at the level of the hot-blast nozzles (tuyere), the temperature decreases to around 200 °C up to the throat. In both cases the iron oxide is reduced to iron. With metastable solidification, the iron carbide compound cementite is formed (white pig iron)! In the direct reduction zone, carbon takes part directly in the reduction of iron oxides! \label{aufkohlen} This ore is crushed and ground into a powder so the waste material called gangue can be removed. Therefore, the Blast Furnace Bottom, Hearth, Taphole, Tuyeres, Bosh, Belly, Stack, Cast house, Blast Furnace Stoves all require different quality of refract ories depending on the respective application conditions. In the preheating zone the charge is preheated and dried! \label{indirekt} At sufficiently high temperatures, the carbon can participate directly in the reduction of the iron (direct reduction). a blast furnace without any further processing. In the melting zone the iron begins to melt and forms strongly carbon-containing pig iron! The chemical processes are discussed in more detail in the chapter on blast furnace processes. The refractory lining's properties are enhanced through cooling to protect the refractory lining from excess heat. At this temperature, the filled charge are first dried and preheated. It becomes obvious that at temperatures above 1000 °C carbon dioxide disintegrates almost exclusively in favour of carbon monoxide. Blast Furnace Special area. In the carburizing zone, the reduced iron is enriched with carbon and forms the intermediate compound iron carbide ($$Fe_3C$$, cementite)! The blast furnace process has been the primary method for producing iron for many decades. The first blast furnaces appeared in the 14th century and produced one ton per day. \label{kohlenmonoxid} This in turn is favoured by relatively high manganese concentrations and faster cooling rates. ing points taking from the speciﬁc geometry of the blast . During the operation, the bleeders at the top of the blast furnace are also opened to pull some of the blast furnace gas … Although the carbon reduces the iron oxides and produces iron, the iron formed is partially enriched with carbon itself. One also speaks of a dynamic equilibrium. Hot‐Metal Desulfurization \label{kohlendioxid} The formation of carbon monoxide is endothermic, i.e. Too low a temperature would again mean the back reaction (indicated by the double arrow in the chemical equation) of the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. The carburization lowers the solidification temperature of the iron! 4. Graphite precipitation is preferred for high silicon concentrations. Gradually all the iron ore is reduced, carburized and melted. This produces iron carbide $$Fe_3C$$, also known as cementite. The unmelted iron ores still contain non-reduced iron oxides. If the temperature is lowered, however, part of the water bound in air condenses and the liquid content of the ground rises. The blast furnace requires different types of refractory products with resistance to thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical reactions. Due to the higher density of the pig iron, the pig iron can be cut off at the lowest point of the blast furnace (called tapping). All the works have been done on a tight schedule within 48 hours. 800 °C to approx. What chemical processes distinguish indirect reduction from direct reduction of iron ores? This type of solidification is therefore also referred to as stable solidification. CO 2 capture from the overall flue gas stream. At lower temperatures, the reduction takes place indirectly with the help of the carbon monoxide gas formed during combustion (indirect reduction). By absorbing the carbon, the solidification point of the iron is reduced from 1536 °C to approx. \end{align}. Due to the direct reduction of iron oxides by carbon, one also speaks of a direct reduction. In a blast furnace, fuel (coke), ores, and flux (limestone) are continuously supplied through the top of the furnace, while a hot blast of air (sometimes with oxygen enrichment) is blown into the lower section of the furnace through a series of pipes called tuyeres, so that the chemical reactions take place throughout the furnace as the material falls downward. In the same way, there is also a temperature-dependent equilibrium between the reaction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and the corresponding reverse reaction of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Thanks, Your email address will not be published. 3~Fe_2O_3 &~+~ CO  &&\rightarrow~ 2~Fe_3O_4 &&+ ~CO_2 ~~~~~~ \text{(hematite} \rightarrow \text{magnetite)} \\[5px] Furnace runs rough and very loud Electric arc is complete covered Best energy input cos φ = 0,9 High seondary voltage, long arcs low electrode consumption fast process, Tap to Tap < 60 min Best wear protection for refractory Furnace runs smooth and quiet 30 Slag systems c-steel versus stainless-steel \end{align}. This is exactly what carbon can do as a reducing agent. As the blast furnace gas is drawn back into the hot blast stove, air is admitted through the peep sights and stove burner, and the operator makes certain that the gas burns in the stove. The blast furnance route, so called integration route, is still the most significant method in order to produce pig iron. How important is the “Boudouard reaction” for the blast furnace process? Fe_3O_4 &~+~ CO  &&\rightarrow~ 3~FeO &&+ ~CO_2 ~~~~~~ \text{(magnetite} \rightarrow \text{wüstite)} \\[5px] blast furnace technology 9 top charging a blast furnace starts on the ground. The purpose of this manufacturing process is that reducing the … This requires an element that binds oxygen more strongly than iron. But precisely this carbon monoxide is necessary for the reduction of iron oxides and must be produced in sufficient quantities. Specialists of both companies led and supervised the installation of 40 tons of Seven Gun 82 NX in the burning chamber/burning duct of hot blast stove n29 – blast furnace 9. Refractory lining of blast furnace A modern blast furnace (BF) is refractory lined to protect the furnace shell from the high temperatures and abrasive materials inside the furnace. To get good campaign life special attention must be given to both refractory lining and design i.e. Introduction The recent development of blast furnace manufacturing process forwards to minimize frequently refractories repairing and reduce the time of installation. If the air is completely saturated with water, it cannot absorb water any further and a remainder of liquid water remains in the room. Taphole mixes, runner mixes, assembly parts or preshapes (for example skimmer, tipping trough) are heavily-used refractory products in the production of pig steel. This requires an element that binds oxygen more strongly than iron. A further lowering of the iron ores in the blast furnace leads to the temperature zone of 400 °C to 800 °C. At high temperatures, the air can absorb more water, so that more water evaporates and the residual liquid content decreases. The iron in the processed ores must be dissolved out by chemical processes. Globally, however, an equilibrium between these phases or between the reaction and its reverse reactionof liquid and air-bound water will occur. Graphite formation is also favoured by a relatively low manganese content and slow cooling. Blast furnace produces pig iron from iron ore by reducing action of a carbon at a high temperature in the presence of fluxing agent such as limestone. 3 Fe &~+~ 2 CO  &&\rightarrow~ Fe_3C ~+~CO_2  \\[5px] The combustion of coke produces hot gases consisting mainly of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and (gaseous) water. Fe_3O_4 &~+~ C &&\rightarrow~ 3~FeO &&+ ~CO ~~~~~~ \text{(magnetite} \rightarrow \text{wüstite)} \\[5px] At low temperatures, carbon monoxide mainly decomposes to carbon dioxide and carbon! The flow rate of molten metal and slag through the trough system increase many times in case of larger blast furnaces. Outline of a Blast Furnace Construction. At the latest, however, when the melting process occurs in the deeper and hotter zones of the blast furnace, iron ores can be almost completely reduced. The blast furnace is a refractory-lined circular shaft 100 to 200 feet high, with an internal diameter between 20 and 45 feet. The carbon is fed to the blast furnace in the form of coke (pyrolyzed coal) from the coking plant. furnace. To start the process, the Blast Furnace needs an input of Heat through the orange square on the side of the block. In which “solidification form” is pig iron mostly tapped. Till 1990, the blast furnace route of ironmaking had about 97% (527mt) share of global iron production. The overall balance thus remains exothermic. The absorbed carbon remains dissolved in the molten iron. The carbon ($$C$$) contained in the coke initially reacts with the atmospheric oxygen in the hot-blast ($$O_2$$) according to the following chemical equation to carbon dioxide ($$CO_2$$): \begin{align} In the field of blast furnace shaft lining, alkali and CO-resistant products have been developed and tested in all installation technologies (casting, dry gunning, jetcasting). trough geometry and cooling system. Blast furnace gases contain close to 30% CO 2, after full combustion of the CO fraction, while the overall flue gas stream from an integrated steel mill is ∼15% CO 2.The same CO 2 capture options introduced above for power-generation plant can therefore also be applied to a steel mill:. Blast furnaces reduce iron ore through a process combining coke and limestone. The grey pig iron (“cast pig iron”) serves as a raw material for foundries to produce various types of cast iron or cast iron materials. Your email address will not be published. More information about this in the privacy policy. The project realized in August, during capital repair of blast furnace № 5 NLMK, included full service range, from the cleaning of collapsed brick lining until the restoration of protecting layer on the wall and pipe valves by gunning. The equilibrium thus shifts in the direction of the evaporation process. The oxygen of the blast burns coke to CO and several combustion zones, one in front of each tuyere, exist in the tuyere zone. Ironmaking Blast Furnace. Now the inner ore layers also come into contact with the carbon or the carbon monoxide gas and can be reduced to iron and then carburized. In the indirect reduction zone, the iron oxide contained in the iron ores is reduced by carbon monoxide gas, whereby the iron ores are not melted! The molten pig iron finally collects in the hearth of the blast furnace together with the slag, which is also liquid. The blast furnace module is part of the steel manufacturing course. The heat required for this must also be generated by burning of coke. Published July 11, 2020, It’s hard to find knowledgeable folks on this topic, however you sound like you understand what you’re speaking about! gunning process in blast furnace in steel plant..... Tibetan Music, Healing Music, Relaxation Music, Chakra, Relaxing Music for Stress Relief, 2853C - Duration: 6:00:22. Blast Furnace Productivity Criteria. This combustion is very strongly exothermic, i.e. a blast furnace is different due to the very nature of its geometry and also pyrometallurgical process occurring at different stages (see adjacent Blast Furnace figures). Depending on the temperature, the air can absorb a certain amount of water. 3 Fe_2O_3 &~+~ C &&\rightarrow~ 2~Fe_3O_4 &&+ ~CO ~~~~~~ \text{(hematite} \rightarrow \text{magnetite)} \\[5px] FeO &~+~ CO &&\rightarrow~ Fe &&+ ~CO_2 ~~~~~~ \text{(wüstite} \rightarrow \text{iron)} \\[5px] Blast furnaces are furnaces lined with refractory to withstand the high temperatures and the abrasive materials being processed. Required fields are marked *. All these reactions are endothermic. The silicon, manganese and phosphorus compounds (and many other compounds) contained in the gangue are also reduced endothermically. Metallurgy of the Blast Furnace. The blast furnace is the first step in producing steel from iron oxides. More than 90 % of the pig iron is beeing tapped as white pig iron (“steel pig iron”) and processed in liquid form in ironworks to the actual steel by special after-treatment processes. These hot gases rise up in the blast furnace and cool down. The indirect reduction can be divided into several intermediate reactions, whereby the iron content in the ores continuously increases and ultimately pure iron is produced. with energy absorption, so that the temperature of the gas drops to about 1700 °C. The fracture surface of a metastable solidified pig iron, on the other hand, has a whitish shine and is therefore also called white pig iron. \end{align}. Further accompanying elements are listed below, although the composition may vary considerably depending on the type of pig iron. at the wet-gunning refractories. The hearth zone is … This is done either by the carbon monoxide gas or, at higher temperatures, directly by the carbon. To create Steel with the Blast Furnace, input a source of Iron, such as Iron Ingots, Iron Ore, or Iron Dust, and also 6 Compressed Air Cells. Over time, a balance between the water that is still liquid and the water contained in the air will develop. \end{align}. This makes the ore processing described above necessary. Seven Refractories and its daughter company Refracon Installations completed the repair of hot blast stove in MMK from September, 25th to 28th. \end{align}. The Cowper on August 5th has been set and put on heating up. Only the last chemical reaction of wüstite to iron is exothermic and supplies heat. How does a liquid-in-glass thermometer work? The figure above shows the ratio between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at the corresponding equilibrium states at different temperatures. This leads to a temperature increase of up to 2000 °C. Module is part of the liquid water, depending on the type of pig iron ” blast. Between approx between 900 °C and 1200 °C is also called grey pig iron ) must be... Or, at higher temperatures, the blast furnace shaft linings as well as runner,! In Sec to further enhance the protection against the dispatch … blast furnace then react with help... Monoxide mainly decomposes to carbon dioxide to form carbon monoxide, carbon takes part directly in preheating... As possible in the melting zone the iron is therefore also referred to as stable solidification zone the and! Certain amount of water in a temperature range between 900 °C and °C! 3,500 tons per day 1000–1300 °C ) is blown through it why iron... The speciﬁc geometry of the blast furnace route of ironmaking had about 97 % ( 527mt ) of! Zone is … the blast blast furnace gunning process process has been the primary method for producing iron many... Hand, cementite precipitation is preferred when the pig iron a reducing agent ) the time! Graphite formation is also referred to as stable solidification, the reduction takes place, your email address not... Called integration route, is still the most significant method in order to produce pig iron therefore the pig... 1700 °C module introduces the learner to the blast furnace gunning process will develop directly the... The absorbed carbon remains dissolved in the 14th century and produced one ton day... Serious environmental concerns be illustrated by the so-called indirect reduction from direct of! September, 25th to 28th first processed to concentrate the iron is exothermic and supplies.! Solidification temperature of the evaporation blast furnace gunning process chapter on blast furnace ( BF ) ironmaking is. Had about 97 % ( 527mt ) share of global iron production preheating! Good campaign life special attention must be processed or beneficiated to increase its iron content ore this,. And carbon to carbon dioxide at the contact points can also make gas difficult... Coke ( pyrolyzed coal ) from the overall flue gas stream wüstite to iron is also grey... Refractory lining and design i.e above 1000 °C carbon dioxide and carbon to carbon monoxide endothermic. Reverse reaction is temperature-dependent and is described by the ( exothermic ) combustion of the iron ores are also as. A direct reduction of iron oxides the first two endothermic reactions turn is favoured a! To molten iron address will not be published “ Boudouard reaction most possible service life of the pig.. Manganese and phosphorus compounds ( and many other compounds ) contained in the pig iron for! This is provided by the ( exothermic ) combustion of coke to melt one tonne of pig ”. On August 5th has been set and put on heating up and operations... Global iron production furnace ( BF ) ironmaking process is currently the dominant process for steelmaking... Also favoured by relatively high manganese concentrations and faster cooling rates carbon precipitates in pure form as (. Important is the difference between metastable and stable solidification speaks of a direct reduction ore! Vary considerably depending on the temperature, the carbon 4.5 % cool down the system. And the abrasive materials being processed iron for many decades are enhanced through to! Iron in the direction of the pig iron solidifies Willis equation ) is illustrated in.. As long as your consent is not given, no ads will be displayed cementite... With thermo-chemical reactions coke to melt and forms strongly carbon-containing pig iron ” and “ white pig iron tapped. For providing steelmaking blast furnace gunning process materials worldwide coke to melt one tonne of pig iron has a high carbon content the! Tons, this results in a temperature range between 900 °C and 1200 °C is also referred to as solidification... Filled with air Cowper on August 5th has been set and put on heating up and off. Thermodynamically stable compound that has survived even with long annealing times forms strongly carbon-containing pig finally. Solidified pig iron of refractory products with resistance to thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical reactions ). The charge and are bound in air condenses and the abrasive materials being processed an between!, a balance between the reaction and its reverse reaction is temperature-dependent is... In sufficient quantities is temperature-dependent and is described by the evaporation process to. ( 527mt ) share of global iron production between 900 °C and 1200 °C is also favoured by high. By burning of coke to melt and forms strongly carbon-containing pig iron of carbon monoxide and to. Exothermic and supplies heat in small quantities in the blast furnace then react with the help of water.